PC Security-Portal for Student and Professional Counselors (PSPC)

(Edited, 02-26-10)
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Tuesday, April 23rd, 2019
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PC Security

Security Basics
Security Threats--Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
Secure E-Mail
Comprehensive Security Options
Ping and Trace
Vulnerabilities--Port Status and Activity
Security-Related Research
Locate Server, Electronic Mail and Web Sites

Security Basics

The Ten Immutable Laws of Security (Microsoft TechNet Archive)
These guidelines remind PC users that maintaining a secure computer is an active process, which requires both knowledge and discretion. The wise management of computer security and privacy (or anonymity) is proposed. The goal to attain absolute computer security and privacy is not realistic (for both online and offline activities).

Support WebCast: Microsoft Internet Explorer Security and Privacy (Microsoft Product Support Services)
Recorded on July 23, 2002--1 hour 8 minutes
Microsoft Windows Media Player preferred--an accompanying PowerPoint presentation is available

Security Threats--Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses

National Cyber Advisory System-Join the mailing list (US-CERT [U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team], Department of Homeland Security's National Cyber Security Division-NCSD)
Public access. Technical managers, and business and consumer computer users can register and receive alerts related to computer security (vulnerabilities and protection options), and "social engineering" schemes related to fraud and the compromise of computers. Visitors can subscribe to mailing lists for technical and/or non-technical documents. 

CERT/CC (CERT [Computer Emergency Response Team]/CC [Coordination Center]) Carnegie Mellon University
CERT/CC provides computer security alerts, identifies security vulnerabilities, and offer security solutions.

CIAC--Computer Incident Advisory Capability (U.S. Department of Energy)
Access is provided to personal computer (and server) security bulletins and articles. CIAC evaluates the risk associated with the potential or actual compromise of servers and personal computers connected to the Internet.

Symantec Security Response (Symantec Corp., Cupertino, CA)
A directory within Symantec's Web site--it includes a list of current virus threats and security advisories. Links are provided to commercial products, software updates, virus removal tools, and a reference area.

Symantec Security Response--Hoaxes (Symantec Corp., Cupertino, CA)
Periodically, e-mail users are notified by individuals within our social and professional network that a computer virus or worm might pose a threat. This site provides a reliable list of hoaxes (or urban legends) related to computer security.

Virus Hoaxes (McAfee Security, Network Associates, Inc., Santa Clara, CA)
This site identifies the name of hoaxes, their contents, and the date of discovery. 


ZoneAlarm (Zone Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA)
Freeware for personal use--commercial options are available--Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, and XP
ZoneAlarm protects your computer from incoming "spyware," key loggers, and other hacker tools. Its comprehensive library of malicious code ensures that your PC is protected from old and new exploits. The configurable interface (for incoming and outgoing data packets) makes it the choice of many non-commercial users.

Sygate Personal Firewall (Sygate Technologies, Inc., Fremont, CA)
No cost for personal or home use--a commercial option is available; Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, and XP--Internet Explorer Version 5.0 or later (OSR2 and OSR2.5)

  • protects against Trojans, spyware, worms and unknown threats

  • stops malicious applications

  • customize your firewall security (e.g., configure ports, IP addresses, protocols, etc.)

  • review logs to analyze intrusion attempts

  • active-scan vulnerability assessment

Outpost Firewall Free (Agnitum, Ltd., Nicosia, Cyprus)
Windows 9x, NT, Me, 2000, and XP
This no cost firewall provides basic protection for casual consumers--a commercial version, Outpost Firewall Pro is available. (Note: Any installed firewall must be deleted before installing Outpost Firewall.)

Kerio Personal Firewall (Kerio Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA)
Windows 98, NT, Me, 2000, and XP
No cost for home and personal use--multilingual options. Kerio works as a full edition for a 30-day trial, and if the commercial version is not purchased, it will transition to a limited free edition.


ActiveX controls >>>click for pop-up info window (IE 5.x or later, or Netscape 6.x or later)

HouseCall (Trend Micro, Inc., Cupertino, CA)
Windows 9x, NT4, 2000, and XP; Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 and later
A no cost online scanner.
You must accept the installation (or update) of an authenticated ActiveX controls--click for link to info--within your PC. (The installed ActiveX code remains functional until an update is provided by Trend Micro.) A scan can be performed on the hard drive an all removable media. A commercial, real-time virus protection option (i.e., PC-cillin) is available from Trend Micro.

Panda ActiveScan (Panda Software, S.L., Bilbao, Spain)
Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, and XP; Internet Explorer 5.x or later
A no cost online scanner.
You must accept the installation (or update) of an authenticated ActiveX controls--click for link to info--within your PC. This online scan will identify and remove viruses from the hard drive, compressed files, and files attached to electronic messages. Panda offers a commercial license for anti-virus utilities. (An e-mail address is required for an online scan--consider using an alternative to your primary business or personal e-mail address.)

Virus Encyclopedia (Panda)
Public access. Enter a virus, worm, or remote access Trojan name into the search and obtain information about its "in the wild" (or circulation) status. Each malicious code includes answers to questions associated with the threat level, and deletion and prevention options.

Special Offers: Free Spyware Scan--eTrust PestPatrol Anti-Spyware (Computer Associates International, Inc., Islandia, NY)
Windows 98se, Me, 2000, and XP; Microsoft Internet Explorer
No cost. You must accept the installation (or update) of an authenticated ActiveX controls--click for link to info--within your PC. This evaluation allows you to detect and remove spyware, adware, keyloggers, browser hijack code, and remote access Trojans (RATs). A commercial version of eTrust PestPatrol is available from Computer Associates International, Inc.

Free Tools--[McAfee] FreeScan (McAfee, Inc., Santa Clara, CA)
Windows 98, Me, 2000, and XP; Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 or later
No cost. You must accept the installation (or update) of an authenticated ActiveX controls--click for link to info--within your PC. Use this online PC evaluation to identify computer malware from thousands of "in the wild" viruses listed within McAfee's VirusScan database. If your evaluation identifies one more viruses, McAfee provides a link to resources that can assist you with removing the offensive code. A commercial version of VirusScan is available from McAfee, Inc.

Virus Information--Virus Search (McAfee)
Public access. Enter a virus, worm, or remote access Trojan name into the search field to obtain profile information, indications of an "infection," and removal options.

Symantec Security Check (Symantec Corp., Cupertino, CA)
Public access. Symantec provides online assessment tools that will: 

1) Scan for Security Risks--evaluation of a computer's vulnerability
2) Scan for Viruses--online virus scan
3) Trace a Potential Attack--users provide an IP (Internet Protocol) address, host name, or URL, and that information can be traced to the source server.

Note. In some instances, a user can obtain sufficient information from trace data to notify an Internet Service Provider or network administrator of intrusion attempts or unsolicited commercial e-mail or "spam."

AVG Anti-Virus Free Edition (GRISOFT, s.r.o., Brno, Lidická, Czech Republic)
Windows and Linux
The Free Edition is reserved for personal, non-commercial use (and only one license per household is allowed). This freeware includes regular virus database updates, real-time protection of files, and a schedule for manual testing.


Windows Defender (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA)
Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 and later; Internet Explorer 6.0 and later
No cost--Microsoft Genuine validation is required. Windows Defender provides protection against security threats caused by spyware, malware, and malicious code associated with persistent pop-up (or pop-under) windows. Real-time protection includes monitoring your system, and providing options if malware is identified.

AVG Anti-Spyware Free (GRISOFT, s.r.o., Brno, Lidická, Czech Republic)
Windows only
This no cost software is for personal, non-commercial use (and only one license per household is allowed). The AVG Anti-Spyware license includes a 30-day trial of the full version of AVG Anti-Spyware. The features (e.g., daily database updates, heuristics to detect unknown threats, automatic cleaning, etc.) associated with the full version will be deactivated after 30 days if the purchase option is waived--your software will become a feature-limited version.

Trend Micro Anti-Spyware for the Web (Trend Micro Inc., Cupertino, CA)
Windows 98se, Me, 2000, and XP
No cost. (Notice--Trend Micro does not specify within its end user license agreement whether an ActiveX control module is included with this PC evaluation utility.) Identify and remove spyware from your computer--after evaluating your computer, a report is presented with software removal options.

Trend Micro CWShredder
Windows 98se, Me, 2000, and XP
No cost. Identify and remove CoolWebSearch and its insidious browser hijackers.

Webroot Spy Sweeper (Webroot Software, Boulder, CO)
Commercial--annual license. Spy Sweeper is an anti-spyware utility, which detects and remove malicious code associated with spyware, adware, RATs (remote access Trojans), and BHOs (browser helper objects). This PC utility has received positive reviews (as of February 2005) for its ability to identify malware, and provide users with the option to quarantine or remove the malicious code.

Spy Scan (Webroot Software, Boulder, CO)
No cost. Run an executable (.exe) file from the server, or download it to your temporary or archive folder, and execute Spy Scan. The Spy Scan identifies your PC risk level as low, moderate, or dangerous. Note. This scan identifies malware; however, the identified items cannot be removed without purchasing a license for Spy Sweeper.

Ad-Aware SE [Personal Edition] (Lavasoft, Inc., Sweden)
Windows 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP, and 2003; (administrative privileges required for Windows NT, 2000, and XP installation)
No cost for non-commercial use--manually initiated--multiple languages. Ad-Aware scans cabinet files, identifies tracking cookies, registry "hacks" associated with remote access Trojans (RATs), dialers, and parasitic software (a.k.a., scumware and malware). Once identified, a PC user can remove or quarantine the offensive code. (Note: Special attention should be given to any objects associated with your registry keys or values). Lavasoft maintains a Threat Assessment Chart (TAC), which is a database where any PC user can identify a threat level by entering information identified from Ad-Aware scans or other assessments. Commercial versions, Ad-Aware Plus and Professional, are available.

Spybot Search and Destroy (Patrick M. Kolla; PepiMK Software; Safer Networking Limited, Dublin, Ireland)
Windows 9x, NT, Me, 2000, and XP
No cost--included in the startup menu--multiple languages--donations accepted. Use the Easy mode for basic scanning features or the Advanced mode for a professional evaluation of your PC. Identification and removal features are included for spyware, adware, dialers, keyloggers, remote access Trojans (RATs), and usage tracks (e.g., multiple users of one PC). Blocking features for cookies, unsigned or threatening ActiveX controls, and threatening downloads are included for users of Microsoft Internet Explorer.

BHODemon (Definitive Solutions, Inc., Lawrenceville, GA)
Windows 9x, Me, NT4, 2000, and XP
No cost--included in the startup menu. BHO [Browser Helper Objects] Demon is designed to help users of Microsoft Internet Explorer prevent and remove spyware- and malware-related code. Some BHOs or third-party add-ons to Internet Explorer can enhance a user's Web browsing experience (e.g., Google Toolbar). BHODemon scans your PC's registry for known malicious code, and gives you the option to temporarily disable (i.e., alter its DLL [Dynamic Link Library]) or delete it. Once installed, BHODemon monitors your PC for registry installations--not all installation alerts are unwanted or undesirable. Therefore, BHODemon empowers the knowledgeable PC user to manage the objects within her or his computer.

WinPatrol [Free] (BillP Studios, Scotia, NY)
Windows 98, Me, NT, 2000, and XP
No cost--runs in the background. The freeware version (in English, German, or French) limits access to an online WinPatrol database. Therefore, some users select WinPatrol Plus, a commercial version. WinPatrol is designed to detect and neutralize computer worms, adware, keyloggers, spyware, tracking cookies, remote access Trojans (RATs), and other scumware and malware. WinPatrol helps PC users identify and understand the programs that are running based on startup management options. It also alerts you when malware installation attempts are made, and when install malicious code attempts to send unauthorized information to a server.

SpywareBlaster (Javacool Software, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA)
Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, and XP
No cost-- initiated by specific downloads--donations accepted. This spyware prevention utility does not scan and remove existing malware. Its prevention features block the installation of unauthorized ActiveX controls, adware, browser hijack scripts, tracking cookies, and dialers. A manual check for updates is included within the freeware--however, an AutoUpdate feature is available for an annual commercial license.

EarthLink Spy Audit (EarthLink, Inc., Atlanta, GA)
Windows 98, 98se, Me, 2000, and XP--Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.x or later
No cost for EarthLink subscribers and non-subscribers. An installation of this small utility (200K) provides users with the ability to scan their PCs for "spyware"--from tracking cookies to Trojan Horses and keyloggers. (PC scans appear to be linked to servers operated by EarthLink or the utility's creator, Webroot Software, Boulder, CO).

Caveat. Neither EarthLink's Privacy Policy nor its Policies and Agreements explicitly address your privacy as a user of the EarthLink Spy Audit. As of June 16, 2004, EarthLink had released two Spy Audit Reports, "which tracked the growth of spyware on consumer PCs" (refer to About EarthLink> Press Room).

EarthLink Toolbar with ScamBlocker (EarthLink, Inc., Atlanta, GA)
(Windows-based computers--Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.x or later)
No cost for EarthLink subscribers and non-subscribers. The EarthLink Toolbar includes: 1) Pop-Up Blocker; 2) a built-in Google search field; and 3) ScamBlocker, which alerts users when their browser is directed to a known phishing Web site. The ScamBlocker component provides protection against a socially engineered fraud scheme commonly known as phishing (e.g., electronic messages that request an update for bank or other financial account information through a fake Web site, although it appears to be authentic). EarthLink maintains a list of fraudulent Web sites based its research, and data from Brightmail and eBay.

Caveat. Neither EarthLink's Privacy Policy nor its Policies and Agreements explicitly address your privacy as a user of the EarthLink Toolbar and ScamBlocker. ScamBlocker must monitor browser activity in order to alert users when they link to a Web site within EarthLink's phishing database.

Secure E-Mail

Hushmail (Hush Communication Corp., The Valley, Anguilla)
A no cost, minimal e-mail service is available--a Web browser must support Java (i.e., either Microsoft Java Virtual Machine or Sun Java 2 plug-in). Hushmail uses PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) standards and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) as the foundations for its secure e-mail, messaging, and other services. Premium and Business accounts and services are available (e.g., domain-branded e-mail accounts, Hush Messenger, Hushtools, Hush Secure Forms, etc.).

Safe-mail.net (Safe-mail, Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel)
A no cost, minimal e-mail service is available. Secure e-mail exchanges involve Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) transmissions and related encryption, and PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) technologies are used to secure messages within Safe-Mail.net servers. Safe-mail.net also provides commercial e-mail accounts with enhanced features, including the use of e-mail clients or other options for archiving messages within a PC.

Comprehensive Security Options

eTrust EZ Armor-LE Security Suite (Computer Associates International, Inc., Islandia, NY)
Windows 98, Me, NT, 2000, and XP
No cost for Microsoft Corporation customers--registration is required. Download and install eTrust EZ Armor-LE (antivirus and firewall) and receive a 12-month subscription for updates--no cost for a one-year subscription expires on August 1, 2005--one installation per household.

Computer Associates International offers no cost online scanners for computer viruses and pest (or spyware). Each Web-based service requires the installation (for the first use) of an ActiveX controls module--click for link to info--within the user's PC.
Windows 98, ME, NT4 (or later), 2000, and XP; Internet Explorer 4 or later

eTrust Antivirus Web Scanner (Virus Information Center, Computer Associates International, Inc., Islandia, NY)

eTrust PestScan (Spyware Information Center, Computer Associates International, Inc., Islandia, NY)

McAfee (McAfee, Inc., Santa Clara, CA)

Zone Labs (Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., Ramat Gan, Israel)

Trend Micro (Trend Micro, Inc., Tokyo, Japan)

Symantec (Symantec Corp., Cupertino, CA)

Panda Software (Panda Software S. L., Bilbao, Spain)

F-Secure (F-Secure Corporation, Helsinki, Finland)

F-Prot (Frisk Software International, Reykjavik, Iceland)

eSafe (Aladdin Knowledge Systems Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel)

Ping and Trace 

Ping-IP Address Checker (SiteSolutions.Com, Online Fulfillment Corp., Roseville, CA)
If you need to troubleshoot access to a server within the Internet infrastructure, this online Ping checker for IP (Internet Protocol) addresses will send a data packet from its designated server to the URL you specify. The Ping report identifies the various hops involved with the transmission of a packet to the designated server (represented by the URL).

A ping option is built into the Window operating system (at the DOS level)--go to: Start>Run>, type, command, and click OK (or press Enter). A MS-DOS window will appear, and at the blinking cursor, type, ping [space] and the hostname section of a URL (e.g., yahoo.com) or an IP (Internet Protocol) address (e.g., press Enter. The summary shows the server's response time in nanoseconds, and the roundtrip time in milliseconds (from your computer to the server).

Trace Route-Shows Route Taken to a Site (SiteSolutions.Com, Online Fulfillment Corp., Roseville, CA)
An online from is used to trace the route that a data packet takes from a server designated by this company to the IP (Internet Protocol) address associated with the URL you provide. The results provide a list of the various "hops" that a packet takes through routers and servers to its destination. 

A traceroute option is built into the Window operating system (at the DOS level)--go to: Start>Run>, type, command, and click OK (or press Enter). A MS-DOS window will appear, and at the blinking cursor, type, tracert [space] and the hostname section of a URL (e.g., yahoo.com) or an IP (Internet Protocol) address (e.g., press Enter. 

The traceroute will list the hops in nanoseconds, and the location of each hop until it arrives at the server associated with the hostname or IP address. At end of the trace, type exit at the blinking cursor. 

Note. A complete interpretation of Traceroute logs requires a thorough knowledge of networks, their devices, and esoteric device-naming preferences. Nevertheless, most intermediate computer users can identify the location for most of the hops that transmit data packets from the original PC to the server designated by a URL or IP address.

Security Implication. The data packets sent through this (i.e., tracert) command are unprotected, and thus, they can be "sniffed," and retrieved for analysis. Therefore, unencrypted data packets sent via the public Internet infrastructure (e.g., regular e-mail and attachments, and unencrypted chat) can be retrieved at the various hops (or servers and routers).

Traceroute Utility (Ted's Webtools)
Paste an IP address or hostname into a field, and receive a trace report based on a 10-packet query.

WhatIsMyIPAddress.com (WhatIsMyIPAddress.com, Tustin, CA)
Public access and ad-supported. Alert! Clicking on the above [hyper]link will reveal your Internet Protocol (IP) address and Hostname via a server-based script.

Vulnerabilities--Port Status and Activity

Port Scan-TCP/UDP (BroadbandReports.com/DSLReports.com)
Use an online Java applet, which scans both TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ports. The results identify the status of the NetBIOS port (i.e., 139) for TCP and UDP availability. The Results button displays the overall status of your computer, and any open ports that may allow a malicious hacker to compromise your computer are identified.
Note: BroadbandReports.com reserves the right to use your port scan results, absent your IP (Internet Protocol) address.

Shields UP!--Test My Shields and Probe My Ports (Steve Gibson, Gibson Research Corporation)
No cost online evaluation, and freeware. For computers with a persistent IP (Internet Protocol) address (typically, cable and DSL)--use the online option to evaluate your "shields" or protection against intrusions, and evaluate common ports that can be used to access your computer. Note: Users with randomly assigned IP addresses (i.e., some with broadband, and all with narrowband connections) can download and install the free IP Agent--it provides information similar to the online evaluation.

Caveat. Using the online utility (i.e., Test My Shields and Probe My Ports) appears to generate an inordinate number of ping from a server managed by Gibson Research Corporation to the user's computer. "What's up with that?" 

PC Flank's Tests (PC Flank, Ltd.)
PC Flank offers six online tests (i.e., Quick Test, Advanced Port Scanner, Stealth Test, Browser Test, Trojans Test, and Exploits Test)--recommendations are noted for beginning and advanced PC users.

BlackCode Security Scan (BlackCode Networks, Santander, Cantabria, Spain)
This complementary online port scan has two phases: 1) examine well-known port numbers, as designated by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority); and 2) an examination of your computer for a Trojan Horse application--these are server-like programs that "listen" on specific ports, and a malicious hacker can access and completely control your computer. Note: The complete scan could involve a block of time.

pcAudit (Internet Security Alliance, Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI)
Download and install a no cost utility that will evaluate whether your computer has vulnerabilities that can be exploited by viruses, worms, or Trojan Horses. A commercial version, pcSuper Scanner, will scan and evaluate all 65,535 ports.

Security-Related Research

Port Numbers (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [IANA])
This directory of IANA provides a list of port numbers or access points for which specific services (e.g., downloaded files requested from a Web server, e-mail, file transfer protocol, and many others) enter and exit personal computers. Ports range from 0-65,535, and they are divided into three areas: 1) Well Known Ports, 0-1,023; 2) Registered Ports, 1,024-49,151; and 3) Dynamic and Private Ports, 49,152-65,535.

MX (Mail Exchange) Record Lookup
MX Record information can used to verify the authenticity of an electronic message. (Identity spoofing is not exclusive to purveyors of unsolicited commercial e-mail [a.k.a., SPAM].) The identity of the servers associated with an e-mail address or its domain name allows an investigator to "Google" for additional information (e.g., owner of the mail servers, probable location of the mail servers, etc.).

  • MX Record Lookup (Fluid Dynamics Software Corp; Domain Registrant, Zoltan Milosevic, Bellevue, WA)
    Check by using an e-mail address
  • Domain Mail Server/Exchanger [MX Records] Lookup (Robert Vahid Hashemian, Ridgefield, CT)
    Check by using an e-mail address, its domain name, or its sub-domain name
  • MX Record Lookup Gateway (Ted's Webtools; Domain Registrant, MOB Networks, Cedar Rapids, IA)
    Check by using a domain name (of an e-mail address)

Trojans Database sorted by name (PC Flank, Ltd.)
An alphabetical database of known Trojan Horses or the server module of malicious code, which can be unknowingly place on a personal computer by a user. These Trojan Horses or server applications open one or more ports, and this allows malicious hackers to use the client component of the Trojan Horse to access and control all aspects of a computer.

Network Solutions Enhanced WHOIS Directory (Network Solutions, Inc., Mountain View, CA)
A no cost look-up service for registered domain names and NIC handles. This database includes the registration information (e.g., name, address, telephone, fax, etc.) for domain name owners. Note: Domain name owners either permit or deny public access to their registration information. Some owners deny access to all but the essential registration information, or they pay for an accredited registrar or affiliated business to "mask" their registration by using that company's name, address, etc.

Geek Tools--WHOIS Proxy (Centergate Research Group, LLC)
This proxy or alternative server for WHOIS will identify the source of an IP (Internet Protocol) address, which is a 32-bit number or identifier associated with each hardware device (servers, personal computers, routers, etc.) within the Internet infrastructure. Note: Some computer users might need to identify one or more IP addresses embedded within the Properties> Details> Message Source (optional) section of the Outlook Express e-mail client, or IP addresses that appear within the logs of a software-based firewall.

Locate Server, Electronic Mail and Web Sites

GeoIP IP Demo (MaxMind, LLC, Boston, MA)
Public access. Copy-and-paste an IP (Internet Protocol) address into the text box to identify its: country of origin, region, city (latitude-longitude), ISP (Internet Service Provider), and organization. A resource for identify the origin of electronic messages* and Web sites**. (Click on the designated link for a demo of your IP address.) Note: This noncommercial option limits users to twenty-five (25) look-ups per day. Commercial IP look-up options (and anti-fraud services) are available from MaxMind.

*The origin of an electronic message's server can be obtained from within e-mail clients and Web-based e-mail services.
Microsoft Outlook: Right-click on a message in the preview window>select, Options...>, and identify the first Received IP address, which is toward end of the Options documentation.

Outlook Express: Right-click on a message in the preview window>select, Properties>, Details tab, and identify the first Received IP address, which is toward end of the Properties documentation.

[most] Web-based e-mail services: Within the e-mail display or preview pane, right-click and select View source (Hotmail), View Full Headers (Yahoo Classic), or select a full header link or tab. The first Received IP address is located toward the end of the e-mail's source or full header.

**DIG Lookup (Whois.Net) can be used to convert the domain name (without a directory extension) of a Web site to its IP address.

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Raymond Perry Jr, PhD, LPC, Site Manager

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